These days you can barely talk about skincare for five minutes without acids coming up in conversation.
Hyaluronic, malic, glycolic, salicylic – it feels like there is an infinite number of different acids for skin and so can feel hard to know which you should use.
But, no more: allow us to give you a brief overview of the big hitters and the products containing them that you should use for your skin type. It’s not as complicated as you probably think (and that’s coming from someone who hated chemistry at school).
Keep scrolling to find out the differences between the most commonly used skincare acids below.
Beta-hydroxy acid (BHA), also known as salicylic acid, is an exfoliant that penetrates deep into the skin’s layers, encouraging the pores to unclog.
It’s able to break down the things that clog your pores, like dead skin cells, dirt and excess oil. As well as this, it’s also a great anti-inflammatory agent, which is why you’ll often find it in spot gels and acne treatments.
Often cited by skincare experts as the hydrating hero, hyaluronic acid is known for its incredible ability to hold over 1,000 times its own weight in water.
A substance that’s naturally present in the body, particularly the eyes and joints, it’s also humectant, so draws moisturse to the skin from the environment.
Hyaluronic acid serums are one of the most popular methods of hydrating the skin, and the plumping effect makes it a great anti-ager. It’s also used in non-permanent lip fillers.
You’ll recognise the name from your favourite fruits, but citric acid is also used in many skincare products for gentle exfoliation – it’s why a lot of at-home face peels smell like oranges. Citric acid is also in the alpha-hydroxy acid group.
Unlike BHA, AHAs are only able to penetrate the top layer of skin, but this makes them an excellent choice for sloughing off dead cells from the surface.
An alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA), glycolic acid is one of the two most popular chemical exfoliants used in peels and toners.
Glycolic acid is much smaller in molecule size than other AHAs, and can therefore penetrate much deeper into the skin.
Sensitive skin types may find it a bit irritating or harsh for this reason, however, so always introduce it into your skincare routine gradually and in a small concentration first.
Also an alpha-hydroxy acid, lactic acid is a naturally-occurring substance found in milk. It’s more moisturising than glycolic, making it less harsh on the skin and a better choice for sensitive complexions.
Read our full guide for more information and the best product recommendations.
Naturally derived from apples, Malic acid is probably the least well known of the commonly used skincare ingredients.
As an AHA, it also encourages skin cell turnover rate, but is found in many anti-ageing beauty products because it can encourage the production of collagen.
Malic acid can also reduce the production of melanin, helping to prevent and improve hyperpigmentation.
Consider your crash course in skincare acids, complete.